Manuals and technical bulletins



Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Coconut Genetic Resources

2018-2028 Summary Brochure


This brochure summarises the full version of the Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Coconut Genetic Resources (the Strategy)

It introduces the main objectives of the Strategy, and the context and status of coconut germplasm conservation and use and outlines what remains to be done.

The new version of the Strategy will be formally presented at the 48th APCC COCOTECH meeting in Bangkok, Thailand, in August 2018.

Please note: Use Adobe Reader to correctly view the double page layout of the brochure


Manual on Standardized Research Techniques In Coconut Breeding

The STANTECH Manual, as this document has been called, will enable coconut breeders and germplasm researchers worldwide to use standardized techniques as guidelines in breeding and germplasm conservation. It is hoped that this manual will help coconut researchers to obtain better and comparable results to accelerate the development of improved varieties for millions of coconut farmers.


Authors: Santos G.A., Batugal P.A. , Othman A., Baudouin L. and Labouisse J.P. ( editors)
Publication Year: 1996
Pages: 105p.
ISBN: n.a.
Language: English
  ( 9.6MB)


  ( 14MB)

Technical guidelines for the safe movement and duplication of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm using embryo culture transfer protocols

This publication provides information and guidance on safe movement and duplication of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm using embryo culture transfer protocols. It represents the main output of a project aiming at validating and applying the adapted protocol to provide users with an up-to-date, reliable method for effectively transferring coconut germplasm. Most importantly, embryo transfer offers an important facility for duplicating unique accessions housed in certain coconut genebanks in other genebanks to minimise the risk of losing them.


Authors: Cueto, C.A., Johnson, V.B., Engelmann, F., Kembu, A., Konan, J.L., Kouassi Kan, M., Rivera, R.L., Vidhanaarachchi, V., Bourdeix, R. and Weise, S.F.
Publication Year: 2012
Pages: 74p.
ISBN: 978-92-9043-924-0
Language: English


  ( 4.22MB)

Coconut Genetic Resources

A comprehensive report on the status of coconut genetic resources which can be used by researchers, policy makers and development organizations as a basis for planning and implementing research and development initiatives to promote the conservation and use of coconut genetic resources.


Authors: Batugal, P.A., Rao, V. R. and Oliver, J.( editors)
Publication Year: 2005
Pages: 797p.
ISBN: 92-9043-629-8
Language: English


  ( 1.7MB)

Descriptors for Coconut

This descriptor list provides an international format and thereby produces a universally understood 'language' for all plant genetic resources data. This publication assists the utilization of germplasm throughout the international plant genetic resources network.

Authors: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI)
Publication Year: 1995
Pages: 61p.
ISBN-10: 92-9043-215-2
ISBN-13: 978-92-9043-215-9
Language: English

Also available: Minimum list of descriptors for Coconut (0.06MB)


  ( 1.26MB)

Technical guidelines for the safe movement of coconut germplasm

Collecting, conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources and their global distribution are essential components of international crop improvement programmes. Inevitably, the movement of germplasm involves a risk of accidentally introducing plant quarantine pests along with the host plant material; in particular, pathogens that are often symptomless, such as viruses, pose a special risk. In order to minimize this risk, effective testing (indexing) procedures are required to ensure that distributed material is free of pests that are of quarantine concern.

The ever-increasing volume of germplasm exchanged internationally, coupled with recent rapid advances in biotechnology, has created a pressing need for crop-specific overviews of the existing knowledge in all disciplines relating to the phytosanitary safety of germplasm transfer. This has prompted FAO and IBPGR to launch a collaborative programme for the safe and expeditious movement of germplasm, reflecting the complementarity of their mandates with regard to the safe movement of germplasm.

The aim of the joint FAO/IBPGR programme is to generate a series of cropspecific technical guidelines that provide relevant information on disease indexing and other procedures that will help to ensure phytosanitary safety when germplasm is moved internationally.

The technical guidelines are produced by meetings of panels of experts on the crop concerned, who have been selected in consultation with the relevant specialized institutions and research centres. The experts contribute to the elaboration of the guidelines in their private capacity and do not represent the organizations to which they belong.

The technical guidelines are written in a short, direct, sometimes ‘telegraphic’ style, in order to keep the volume of the document to a minimum and to facilitate updating. The guidelines are divided into two parts: The first part makes recommendations on how best to move germplasm of the crop concerned and is divided into general and technical recommendations. Institutions performing indexing services and selected references are listed at the end of this first part. The second part gives descriptions of the most important pests that could be of quarantine concern.

The procedures recommended in this booklet have been developed specifically for the movement of small quantities of germplasm exchanged for breeding, conservation or other scientific purposes. They were not developed for commercial shipments of planting material or commodities.

  ( 0.2MB)

Regeneration guidelines for coconut

This document discusses the following topics:

Authors: Konan J.L., Bourdeix R. and George M.L.
Publication Year: 2008
Pages: 10p.
ISBN: n. a.
Language: English

  ( 2.1MB)

Data Analysis Manual for Coconut Researchers

This publication provides basic statistical concepts and includes: sampling methods, frequency distribution of observations, estimation and tests of significance, analysis and relationships between variables, basic principles for planning and conducting coconut field trials, basic experimental designs for coconut trials, experimental designs for coconut trials with modified blocking, experimental designs for multiple factors, analysis of multilocation trials, and multivariate analysis and determination of genetic distance. The manual provide details of experimental designs to use in agronomic, breeding trails and germplasm characterization and evaluation.

Using this tutorial-type manual, coconut researchers as well as other researchers can practice computation by themselves using the examples provided in this manual and then use the same procedure to analyze their own data.

Authors: Mathur, P.N.; Muralidharan, K.; Parthasarathy, V.A.; Batugal, P.; Bonnot, F.
Publication Year: 2008
Pages: 240p.
ISBN-13: 978-92-9043-736-9
Language: English

  ( 5.1MB)

(Part 2 6.8MB)
(Part 3 3.7MB)
(Part 4 5.1MB)
(Part 5 2.4MB)

CFC technical paper: Coconut hybrids for smallholders (Part 1)

Project Reports and Related Papers of the Multilocation Trials to Identify Suitable Coconut Hybrids and Varieties for Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean

Coconut is grown in rainfed areas, including erosion-prone upland and hilly areas and in coastal zones where the poorest people live. Although about 12 million hectares are planted to coconut worldwide, about 96% are produced by smallholders tending less than four hectares. Coconut farmers belong to the marginalized sector of society and most live in poverty. Many of them live on land they do not own, are considered non-bankable by the formal banking sector, and most often without voice to influence government or private sector policy.

Coconut farmers face decreasing farm productivity and unstable markets for copra, the traditional dried kernel product. Their livelihood is further aggravated by ageing and senile trees, natural calamities such as drought and typhoons, incidence of pests and diseases, lack of resources to invest in innovations to improve yields and incomes and lack of availability of high-yielding and adapted varieties. To address some of these problems, the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) supported a project of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) from 14 December 1999 to 15 December 2004 entitled “Coconut Germplasm Utilization and Conservation to Promote Sustainable Coconut Production”. In this project, the performance of 30 promising coconut hybrids and varieties were tested in three African (Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Tanzania) and three Latin American and Caribbean countries (Brazil, Jamaica and Mexico).

This publication aims to help put into practical use the results of the project by enhancing awareness of the early-bearing and high-yield potential of the newly developed coconut hybrids in increasing coconut yields and incomes of poor coconut farmers.

This publication is a contribution of CFC in helping resource-poor coconut farmers to ameliorate their economic condition by providing them with options to improve their livelihoods. It is hoped that extension workers, researchers and policy makers would find this publication useful and relevant in improving the farm productivity of poor coconut farmers in particular and contributing to increased global coconut production in general.

  ( 5.3MB)

Coconut recipes from around the world

This book is the outcome of a joint effort of Bioversity International and COGENT member countries. Being a traditional part of the rural food system and a major source of nutrition for many rural communities, coconut has been combined in various ways with locally available ingredients in cuisines that reflect the local biodiversity. In this book, the authors share 300 ways of using coconut in recipes from 13 coconut-growing countries.


Authors: George, M.L.; Cervantes, E.P. (editors)
Publication Year: 2009
Pages:  328p.
ISBN: 3978-92-9043-806-9
Language: English


  ( 1.01MB)

Manual on technical writing, public awareness, seminar presentation and proposal preparation for coconut researchers

Coconut research has been constrained by lack of adequate institutional and financial support to make it relevant and effective. This is partly due to the inadequate and discontinuous funding of this vital activity. COGENT believes that if research activities and research results can be reported effectively, it could generate more public awareness, concern and action for supporting the coconut industry
in general and coconut research in particular.

This ”Manual on technical writing, seminar presentation, public awareness and proposal preparation for coconut researchers” will provide coconut researchers a guide on how to effectively write and present, in high-quality form, research activities, research results and proposals so that these could be better appreciated and supported by peers, research administrators, partner institutions, donors and the general public. In preparing the manual, the editors largely used materials in the IPGRI-organized workshops on technical writing held in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines in September 1998 and in Hanoi, Vietnam in March 2002. It is also hoped that national programmes can use this manual to train coconut researchers to increase the cadre of effective researchers worldwide.

Authors: Stapleton, P., Batugal, P. and Oliver, J.( editors)
Publication Year: 2004
Pages: 125p.
ISBN: 92-9043-631-X
Language: English